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科研论文英文写作技巧(下)
时间:2018-06-08 14:05 点击:

  科技论文写作的质量能够表明作者学术和表达能力。一篇好的论文不仅要有科学的分析论证和独到的学术见解,且要做到层次清晰、结构严谨、语句通顺、用词准确等,但是还是不少的作者在写作的过程中却是忽略了这方面的问题,从而影响了论文的质量和可读性,且失去论的发表机会。掌握了写作技巧,一篇优秀的科研英文论文就成功了一大半。

  那么这几个英语学术论文写作的细节需要注意一下:

  A. 时态:当提到本文、此图、此表等说明了、表达了什么时要用一般现在时,而不用一般过去时。This paper describes ……The focus of this paper is ……Figure 1 shows ……Most of the common condensation polymers are listed in Table 1-1.

  B. 数:在学术论文里,有时很难顾及数的逻辑。但一般不将逻辑上的问题视为语法错误。只须注意在一个句子中的数和谓语动词的统一即可。单、复数的选用有一些非定性、但可供参考的趋向:

  ◆◆ 当含意上强调复数时建议用复数。The catalyst concentrations for the different reactions are different.Our research focuses on the syntheses and characterizations of a series of polycarbonates with different chemical structures.The physical and chemical properties of this compound have been studied.The chain lengths of the oligomers with different molecular weights are different.

  ◆◆当含意上不强调复数时可用单数或复数。Our research focuses on the synthesis of polycarbonates.The property of the compounds in group 1 is different from the property of the compounds in group 2.The chain length of the oligomers increases with increasing reaction time.

  ◆◆在标题、小标题中或描述一类事物、现象等,提到具体物质时常用复数。【Polyesters】 Polymers are macromolecules built up by large numbers of small molecules. The small molecules which combine with each other to form polymer molecules are termed monomers.在标题、小标题或描述一类事物、现象等,提到抽象概念时可用单数、也可用复数。【Step Copolymerization】Newer Types of Step Polymerizations. This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail.

  ◆◆学术论文、有关学术的科普文章中的名词的可数或不可数特性的划分区别于非学术文章《非学术文章中的可数或不可数特性可从字典查到》。以下是在学术文章中通常视为可数名词的单词:《但在一般字典中它们或它们做某种含义解时可能被划归不可数名词》。

  application development consideration

  composition concentration distribution

  structure length weight

  ◆◆ 当同时提及几个图、表、方程式时要用复数(分别单个地提及则不用):The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equations 2 and 3. The reaction rate constant can be calculated from Equation 2 and Equation 3. Figs. 4 and 5 show ……

  C. 冠词:

  ◆◆单数名词前一般要加冠词:a , the等; 但以下情况可不加:表示不特指的、较抽象的概念:

  This chapter will consider the characteristics of step polymerization in detail. An understanding of the relative ease of cyclization or linear polymerization comes from a variety of sources.Different polymers are synthesized to yield various mechanical behaviors by the appropriate combinations of crystallinity, crosslinking, Tg, and Tm..但需注意这些单词前加冠词也是经常见到的,这是由它在句中的含义决定的(如有一定的特指意义):Polyisoprene is a typical elastomer – it is amorphous, easily crossed, has a low Tg (-73°C) and a high Tm (14°C).

  ◆◆目录、标题中通常省略冠词:

  1 Introduction

  1-1 Types of Polymers and Polymerizations

  …

  1-4 Molecular Weight

  1-5 Physical State

  图、表的题目中有时可省略冠词:Fig. 2-2 Second order plot of the self-catalyzed polyesterification of adipic acid with diethylene glycol at 166 °C.……Fig. 8 Dependence of the ease of cyclization on the size of the ring.化学药品、化学物质前通常不加冠词:The polymerization is catalyzed by protonic or lewis acids although a wide variety of base catalysts such as calcium acetate and antimony trioxide can also be used.图中的横、纵坐标的名称前不加冠词。

  D. 大小写:请注意以下结构的大、小写:当提及具体第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母通常要大写。As discussed in Chapter 2, ……In Section 1.2, we ……As shown in Figure 1, ……The results are listed in Table 3.当不指明是第几章、节;图、表;方程式时,首个字母如在句中通常用小写。In the previous chapter, ……As shown in this figure, ……

  E. 缩写:以下全名和缩写在文中通常视为同等,可以互换。

  Figure Fig. Figures Figs.

  Table Tab.

  Chapter Chap.

  Section Sec.

  Equation Eq. Equations Eqs.

  F. 一些常用词汇用法

  ◆◆research, study, investigate:research可做名词、动词,但通常做名词用,很少见到动词的用法。句中需要动词时常用study或investigate来表达。

  ◆◆detail/detailed:The properties of this compound were studied in detail.//The detailed properties of this compound were studied.//The details of the properties of this compound were studied.

  ◆◆follows/following:The results are as follows: ……//We got following results: ……

  ◆◆increase, decrease:均可做名词和动词,We can observe an increase in the reaction rate.//The reaction rate increases.

  ◆◆focus, concentrate:focus: n. , v. The focus of this paper is ……This paper focuses on ……Our study focuses on ……We focus our study on ……Our study is focused on ……concentrate: v. We concentrate our study on ……Our study is concentrated on ……

  ◆◆effect, affect:effect: n. //affect: v.

  ◆◆compose, consist:A is composed of B and C.//A consists of B and C.

  ◆◆increase, improve:increase: 主要指数值上的增加。improve: 主要指性质的增加、改善。

  G. 名词修饰:在学术文章中,很多时候会用到直接用名词做修饰,而不用’s 或 …… of …… 的形式。常见的这类词有:reaction rate;reaction rate constant;reaction temperature;reaction condition

  molecular weight distribution……

  H. 分词修饰:the reaction we studied;the temperature used;the nonlinearity observed。所有格:非人的所有格用……of……, 而不用……’s 。

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